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Senin, 29 November 2010

BATIK

BATIK


 
I. AT GLANCE ABOUT THE HISTORY OF BATIK IN YOGYAKARTA

A traditional Batik Art has been known a few centuries ago in Java Island. If we search the improvement of batik in java, it can’t be separated from the improvement of batik art in Central Java, Yogya batik is a part of the batik art development in Central Java which had got the combinations of some motives from other places.
The course of “Yogya Batik” cannot be separated from Giyanti Treaty in 1755. Soon after Mataram Kingdom was devided into two parts, and Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat was established, Mataram clothes were removed from Surakarta to Ngayogyakarta, so Sri Susuhunan Pakubuwono II ( The Previous King of Yogya) designed a new costume which was different from Surakarta traditional costume.
In Giyanti Village, the conference was held. Among the results were the area of Mataram was devided into two, one area was under the authority of Sri Paduka Susuhunan PB II in Surakarta Hadiningrat, another area was under the authority of Kanjeng Pangeran Mangkubumi who was after inaugurated as a king having a title Ngersa Dalem Sampeyan Dalem Ingkang Sinuwun Kanjeng Sultan Hamengkubuwono Senopati ing Ngalaga Ngabdul Rachman Sayidin Panatagama Kalifatullah ingkang jumeneng kaping I, whose palace was then named Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat.
All the heirlooms and palace properties were also devided into two parts. Mataram costume was brought to Yogyakarta , as Kanjeng Pangeran Mangkubumi wanted to maintain it. Therefore, Surakarta which was under the authority of Sri Paduka Susuhunan PB III designed a new costume and managed to make the traditional costume of Surakarta Kingdom as we can see up to now.

The characteristics of Yogyakarta style, there are two kinds of background or cloth basic colour. White and Black. Meanwhile the colour of batik can be white (mori cloth colour), dark blue blackish and dark brown.
“Sered” or the edge of cloth, white, was exerted not to mixed or soga enters sered, both for the cloth with white or black background.
The decoration, first: Geometry: stripe aslant line, crossing line or ceplok and kawung, anyaman and limaran as well.
The second decoration style : Non-Geometry : semen, lung-lungan and boketan.
The decoration style which is symbolic relates closely with Hindu-Java philosophy (Mrs. Nian S Jumena) among others are : Sawat symbolizes a crown or high powerful man, Meru symbolizes a mountain or earth, Dragon symbolizes water, Bird symbolizes wind or upper world, Fire tongue symbolizes fire.

Since the first time there had been prohibition cloth. Each Sultan who had reigned deserved to make the new rules or prohibition.

The last, Sri Paduka Sultan HB VIII made the new rule (revision) entitled Pranatan dalem bab pengangge keprabon ing Nagari Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat ( The King’s Rule of Royal Clothes in Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Palace), which was published in Rijksblad van Djokjakarta No. 19, in 1927. Pengangge Keprabon (Royal Costume) are cap or kuluk (wangkidan), dodot/kampuh and bebet prajurit (soldier wraparound cloth worn by man), bebet nyamping ( long cloth), trousers, and glisire (cindhe trousers,velvet,silk,catoon, and its slide),songsong or umbrella.
The prohibited batik motives : parang rusak (parang rusak barong, parang rusak gendreh < 8 cm, parang rusak klitik < 4 cm), semen ageng sawat grudha (gurdha), semen ageng sawat lar, udan riris, rujak senthe, parang-parangan which is not parang rusak ; how big it is depends on parang rusak size.
All the Sultan’s (King’s) sons are allowed to wear those kinds of batik cloth. The queen’s batik costume is allowed to be the same with The Sultan (King). The other wives are allowed to wear parang rusak gendreh and others down. The first wife of KG Pangeran Adipati is the same with her husband. The other wives are allowed to wear parang rusak gendreh and others down. Also for KG Pangeran Adipati’s sons, their wives are the same with their husband ; and the previous prince (Pangeran Putra Sentana Panjenengan dalem Nata).
Wayah Dalem (the King’s grand children) wear parang rusak gendreh and down, also for the King’s great grand children and the grand children’s children. The great grand children’s children (boys and girls) and down are allowed to wear batik parang-parangan which should have motive, prohibited to wear blank motive.
Pepatih Dalem ( The Vice King) is allowed to wear parang rusak barong and others down.
The Assistants : Pengulu Hakim (Judge), Wedana Ageng Prajurit (Soldiers), Bupati Nayaka jawi lan lebet (Outside and Inside Regents) are allowed to wear parang rusak gendreh and others down.
Bupati Patih Kadipaten lan Bupati Polisi ( Vice Regents and Police Chief) are the same with the Assistants mentioned above.
Penghulu Landrad ( Landrad Village Chief), Wedana Keparak para Gusti (Nyai Riya) or the village chief’s assistant, Bupati Anom (Junior Regent), Riya Bupati Anom (Junior Regent’s Assistant) parang rusak gendreh and others down.
The servants and assistants whose positions are under Junior Regent’s Assistant and those who are not Junior Regent, those whose positions are Village Chief’s Senior Assisants also wear parang rusak gendreh and others down.


II. NAMES OF ANCIENT BATIK MOTIVE

1 Abdi nyamoe
2 Adoe manis
3 Agar-agar
4 Ajam poegér latar iréng.
5 Alas kobong
6 Alas-alasan
7 Alas-alassan latar ireng
8 Aloes ing nálá
9 Ambar sekar
10 Ampëk
11 Anak ayam
12 Anggoer
13 Anggoer kripik.
14 Anggoer latar poetih
15 Anggrek
16 Anggrek Beton
17 Anggrek sitangsoe
18 Angin-angin
19 Angin-angin kampoeng
20 Angin-angin katjang Tjina
21 Angin-angin latar irëng.
22 Angin-angin Madoeran
23 Angin-angin panyen
24 Angin-angin pléntong
25 Angin-angin sawoet
26 Angin-angin séprantoe
27 Angin-angin seprantoe latar ireng
28 Angkloeng jiwá
29 Angreni
30 Ardikoesoemá latar poetih
31 Ardikoesoenä
32 Aroem Ndaloe
33 Asmarandono
34 Asoep kana latar
35 Ayam
36 Ayam Alas
37 Ayam Poeger
38 Babon Angrem
39 Badèrran latar iréng
40 Baita Kandas
41 Baitá kandas latar poetih
42 Bak bayá
43 Balagbag
44 Baloembangan
45 Balok bosok
46 Bandji
47 Bandji Bengkok
48 Bandji bèngkok latar poetih.
49 Bandji ganggong latar iréng.
50 Bandji Goeling


51 Bandji kasoet latar poetih.
52 Bandji latar ireng
53 Bandji latar poetih
54 Bandji likassan latar irëng.
55 Bang Sënen
56 Bango
57 Bango boetak
58 Bango tontong
59 Bantji tjoka
60 Banyak angrém
61 Banyak ngéndog
62 Banyak rémbyang
63 Bantji
64 Bantji kasoet
65 Bantji kémbang
66 Bantji koeroeng
67 Banyi TjéTjèk
68 Banyi Tjiná
69 Banyi toetoep
70 Baris kondoer
71 Baris kondoer latar poetih.
72 Barong asepak
73 Barong latar poetih
74 Barong sèpoeh
75 Basoeto
76 Batawi
77 Batik ayam
78 Batik ho
79 Bayangkari
80 Bayém bang
81 Bayoel ngantang
82 Bekiking
83 Bekingking latar iréng.
84 Békoetahan
85 Bèlah kétoepat
86 Bèlinyon
87 Bëndóe ségara latar poetih
88 Béri kablak
89 Bëtawen
90 Betet
91 Betetan
92 Bibis pistä
93 Bibis pista latar irèng
94 Bintang Loehoer
95 Bintang latar ireng.
96 Bintang Loehoer
97 Bintang Wadjib
98 Bintangan
99 Bintangan latar iréng
100 Blabagan

101 Blandaran
102 Blarak sinampan
103 Blarak sineret
104 Blédeg
105 Blibar
106 Bligin Goerdo
107 Boeah Anggoer
108 Boeloe rambat
109 Boeloe rambat latar irëng.
110 Boeloes angrém
111 Boeloes ngérong
112 Boenga Melati
113 Boental
114 Boental latar poetih
115 Boental Manten
116 Boerbajäsá latar ireng
117 Boerbäkará latar poetih
118 Boerbayasa
119 Boeroeng gaok
120 Boeroeng Piknik
121 Boeroeng Tjolombo
122 Boeroeng yoewi
123 Boewah anggoer dimakan oelat
124 Bogém binalik
125 Bolodewo
126 Bondet
127 Bondèt latar ireng
128 Bongkang sémbayang
129 Brámärä latar iréng
130 Bribil
131 Byoer
132 Dablang
133 Dablang latar iréng
134 Dablang latar poetih
135 Dahon anggoer
136 Dalima wantah latar poetih
137 Dara Gelar
138 Därá gelar latar iréng
139 Ddjadjakoesoema
140 Ddjaladri
141 Délereng
142 Dèlimá wantah
143 Déngkloeng
144 Djäjákartälá latar poetih.
145 Djäjäkartiká latar irëng
146 Djäjákiränä.
147 Djäjákoesoema latar irëng
148 Djájáséntanä latar irëng
149 Djala sèrimpang
150 Djaloe Mampang


151 Djambe Tjepot
152 Djambé tjépot latar poetih.
153 Djamblang
154 Djamblang latar poetih.
155 Djamblang miring
156 Djamblang Tjilik
157 Djanger
158 Djanggléng latar irëng.
159 Djangkaran
160 Djangkarran latar irëng.
161 Djangkoeng koening
162 Djantoeng hati
163 Djántra kémbar
164 Djarak koeroeng
165 Djati koemoro
166 Djawah
167 Djáyákoesoemá
168 Djáyárésmi
169 Djayeng
170 Djélamprang
171 Djèmprit latar irèng
172 Djendral minoem
173 Djèng Nálá
174 Djengkollan latar irëng.
175 Djéntik manis latar poetih
176 Djobin
177 Djodipati
178 Djoebinan
179 Djoedjoekaring latar iréng
180 Djoempoettan latar irëng.
181 Djoewita
182 Djoko lola
183 Djolen
184 Djolo Nidri
185 Djong ranté latar poetih
186 Djoyo djotro
187 Djoyokirono
188 Djoyokoesoemo
189 Djoyomoelyo
190 Djoyosentono
191 Doeda brengos
192 Doedä brèngos latar irèng
193 Doeda gamblok
194 Doeda gèloet
195 Doemeling
196 Doerjadäná latar poetih
197 Doro Sadjodo
198 Elar
199 Eloeng
200 Emplek


201 Endas Maling
202 Endas maling latar poetih
203 Endog rémèk
204 Endol-endol
205 Endol-èndol latar iréng
206 Erang-erangan
207 Esoek sore
208 Gabah sinawoer
209 Gabah sinawoer latar poetih
210 Gadjah biráwä latar poetih
211 Gagak ngaoeb
212 Gagak setrá
213 Gambir Anom
214 Gambir anom latar poetih
215 Gambir Saketi
216 Gambir sakéti latar poetih.
217 Gambir sawit
218 Gambir sawit latar poetih
219 Ganda koesoemo
220 Gándásoeli
221 Gándáwiyayá
222 Gandoe
223 Gandosan
224 Gandossan latar iréng.
225 Gandroeng
226 Ganggeng
227 Ganggong
228 Ganggong barès latar ireng
229 Ganggong bèngkokkan latar irëng
230 Ganggong bintoeloe latar irëng
231 Ganggong boeloes
232 Ganggong Branta
233 Ganggong bräntá latar irëng
234 Ganggong djoebin
235 Ganggong djoebin latar iréng
236 Ganggong Garoet
237 Ganggong garoet latar irëng
238 Ganggong joedjana latar ireng
239 Ganggong kapoendoeng
240 Ganggong Kebar
241 Ganggong kèbar latar ireng
242 Ganggong këmbang latar poetih
243 Ganggong koeroeng latar irëng
244 Ganggong kraton
245 Ganggong kraton Soemenep
246 Ganggong latar poetih
247 Ganggong Lerep
248 Ganggong lèrèp latar irëng
249 Ganggong madoebrántä latar irëng
250 Ganggong Madoerá


251 Ganggong njamploeng iréng
252 Ganggong paningrat latar iréng
253 Ganggong rante
254 Ganggong ranté latar irëng,
255 Ganggong Ranti
256 Ganggong ranti latar irëng
257 Ganggong rèjab latar iréng
258 Ganggong sapit
259 Ganggong Sari
260 Ganggong sari latar irëng
261 Ganggong seprantoe latar iréng
262 Ganggong sidákrama
263 Ganggong sinapit
264 Ganggong soepit
265 Ganggong srandil latar iréng
266 Ganggong tèdjá latar iréng
267 Ganggong tjéplok latar poetih
268 Ganggong tjoerigá latar ireng
269 Ganggong Toerki
270 Ganggong toerki latar irëng
271 Ganggong wibáwä latar irëng
272 Ganggong Yoedjono
273 Ganggong yoenan
274 Ganthi
275 Garoedá latar iréng
276 Gayam roentoeh
277 Gébar sé
278 Gédagan latar irëng
279 Gèdang sélirang
280 Gedangan
281 Gegot
282 Gembel
283 Gembirowati
284 Gémék taroeng
285 Géndagan
286 Gèndani
287 Gendhono
288 Gendolo Giri
289 Germén
290 Girang Tjampoer
291 Girang tjampoer latar poetih
292 Giringsing
293 Glathik Madrim
294 Glebag
295 Godong pring
296 Godong soekoen
297 Godong yarak
298 Godongan
299 Goenardijáyá
300 Goenáwidjájá latar poetih


301 Goenoeng Sari
302 Goerdo Rodjo
303 Goerdo Yekso
304 Goerit Wesi
305 Goerit wësi latar ireng.
306 Goesti poetri
307 Golang Galing
308 Golang-galing
309 Gondang-gandoeng
310 Gondäsoeli latar poetih
311 Gondosoeli
312 Gong Gomino
313 Grageh Waloeh
314 Grènyiling
315 Grésik
316 Gringsing
317 Gringsing aloes
318 Gringsing angoen-angoen
319 Gringsing arya-arya
320 Gringsing ayam poeger
321 Gringsing bagenda
322 Gringsing kawoeng
323 Gringsing Koesoemagoena
324 Gringsing kawot
325 Gringsing Kloengsoe
326 Gringsing kloengsoe latar irèng
327 Gringsing lalampahan
328 Gringsing latar poetih,
329 Gringsing loeng anggoer
330 Gringsing loeng ing sih
331 Gringsing loeng lango
332 Gringsing oedajanaloes
333 Gringsing pálä latar irëng
334 Gringsing pamasah
335 Gringsing Pándawa
336 Gringsing Pándawa jaya
337 Gringsing Panjaloe
338 Gringsing Parta Awiwaha
339 Gringsing Rámáyana
340 Gringsing Ráwantaka
341 Gringsing ringgit
342 Gringsing Sangoepati
343 Gringsing Sangoepati
344 Gringsing sèsémenan
345 Gringsing silir ing maroeta
346 Gringsing Sisik
347 Gringsing sisik latar poetih
348 Gringsing Tjanggoe
349 Gringsing wajang latar poetih
350 Gringsing wayang



351 Gringsing pandawa jaya
352 Gringsing wayang lelakon rayoena tapa
353 Gringsing wayang lelakon Samba lalana
354 Gringsing Wirata
355 Gringsing yagaTjatroe
356 Grinsing Lintang
357 Grompol
358 Grompol latar ireng.
359 Grompol Tjilik
360 Grompolan
361 Harddjoeno Mangsah
362 Higoel-higoelan
363 Ikan Emas
364 Imá krèndá
365 Imá-imá
366 Imá-imá tatit
367 Imä-imá tatit latar poetih
368 Imo krendo
369 Intip ijan
370 Irisan pandan
371 Iris-irisan pandan
372 Kadèle wontá
373 Kagok ing klitik
374 Kahwá péTjah
375 Kahwá woengkoel
376 Kaïn Karet
377 Kaïn Prankèmon
378 Kaïn Raden Ayoe Saleh
379 Kakaryoen
380 Kálá jéngking
381 Kalamkare
382 Kalong Alit
383 Kalong Sari
384 Kandoeroewan
385 Kanigärä latar iréng
386 Kanigoro
387 Kantet
388 Kantil
389 Kapal Api
390 Kapal kandas
391 Kapal kéroek
392 Kapal layar
393 Kápálá slendang
394 Kapas
395 Kapidondong
396 Kapidongdong latar irëng
397 Kapiréntá
398 Karana
399 Karang mélok
400 Karetan


401 Kartika loka
402 Karwain
403 Katjang Wose
404 Kate mas
405 Katesan
406 KaTjeloeng
407 KaTjipoetan
408 Kawoeng
409 Kawoeng bendi
410 Kawoeng bligon
411 Kawoeng boelan
412 Kawoeng Boental
413 Kawoeng brántá
414 Kawoeng Brátáyoeda
415 Kawoeng Brendi
416 Kawoeng brèngos
417 Kawoeng bribil
418 Kawoeng dompol
419 Kawoeng eTjek
420 Kawoeng gagak
421 Kawoeng Gamblok
422 Kawoeng ganggong
423 Kawoeng garoedá
424 Kawoeng Gringsing
425 Kawoeng katoenggeng
426 Kawoeng kémiri kopong
427 Kawoeng kémplang
428 Kawoeng kémplang latar poetih
429 Kawoeng Kepyar
430 Kawoeng Koesoemagoena
431 Kawoeng Kopi PeTjah
432 Kawoeng latar poetih.
433 Kawoeng Madoera
434 Kawoeng pèTjah
435 Kawoeng pitjis
436 Kawoeng pitjis latar poetih.
437 Kawoeng poetri
438 Kawoeng Praboe
439 Kawoeng rájá
440 Kawoeng rante
441 Kawoeng sari
442 Kawoeng sari latar poetih.
443 Kawoeng Sawoet
444 Kawoeng Sen Goerdo
445 Kawoeng sewoe
446 Kawoeng TjaTjah Gori
447 Kawoeng Tjákrá
448 Kawoeng Tjépiring
449 Kawoeng tritis
450 Kayoe angrémit


451 Kayoe Tjiná
452 Kébar
453 Kédrah sená
454 Kejongan latar irëng.
455 Kékémbangan
456 Kèléngan
457 Kémádá
458 Kémáda géndoelan
459 Kémádá salangan
460 Kémádá satriyá manah
461 Kèmádá sékar katela
462 Kèmada soengging
463 Kémbang anggoer
464 Kémbang anggrek
465 Kembang Asem
466 Kembang asèm klewer
467 Kèmbang asém koeroeng
468 Këmbang asém latar iréng
469 Kémbang awi
470 Kèmbang bakoeng
471 Këmbang bèstroe latar poetih
472 Kémbang blimbing
473 Kémbang blimbing latar ireng
474 Kèmbang blimbing latar poetih
475 Kémbang boengah roempoek
476 Kémbang dalimá
477 Këmbang djamboe latar irëng.
478 Kembang djarak
479 Kémbang djarak latar poetih.
480 Kembang djemboel
481 Kémbang djémboel latar irëng.
482 Kembang djeroek latar irëng.
483 Kémbang doeren
484 Kémbang gadoeng
485 Kembang Gambir
486 Këmbang gambir latar iréng
487 Këmbang gambir latar poetih
488 Kémbang ganggong
489 Kémbang gayam
490 Kembang Gempol
491 Kémbang gèmpol koening
492 Kémbang gëmpol latar iréng
493 Kèmbang genjret
494 Kèmbang glagah
495 Kèmbang janggél
496 Kémbang jarak
497 Kémbang jati
498 Kémbang jèpoen
499 Kémbang jèroek
500 Kémbang jéroek koeroeng

501 Kémbang kangkoeng
502 Kembang Kantil
503 Kémbang kapas
504 Kembang kapas baris latar iréng
505 Kembang kapas kapita latar ireng
506 Kembang kapas latar ireng.
507 Kèmbang katelá
508 Kèmbang kates
509 Kèmbang kaTjang
510 Kèmbang kaTjang Tjina
511 Kémbang kaTjeloeng
512 Kembang Kenikir
513 Kembang kénikir latar iréng.
514 Kémbang kéntang
515 Kémbang kéntang latar ireng
516 Kémbang képèl
517 Kèmbang këtongkèng latar irëng.
518 Kembang Kipas Baris
519 Kembang kloewih
520 Kémbang koeroeng
521 Kèmbang kopi
522 Kémbang koro
523 Kémbang lek
524 Kémbang lombok
525 Kembang Manggar
526 Kembang manggar latar poetih
527 Kembang manggis latar ireng.
528 Kémbang mawar
529 Këmbang mindi latar poetih.
530 Kèmbang nanas
531 Kèmbang nanas boeloe
532 Kèmbang oeribang
533 Kembang pálá
534 Kémbang pare
535 Kémbang péndjalin latar iréng
536 Kembang Pepe
537 Kembang Pépé latar ireng
538 Kémbang pépé latar poetih
539 Këmbang pidjéttan latar poetih.
540 Kèmbang piyètan
541 Këmbang poedak latar irëng
542 Kembang Poedak Latar Poetih
543 Kèmbang pot
544 Kèmbang pring
545 Kémbang randoe
546 Kémbang randoe latar poetih.
547 Kembang ranti latar ireng
548 Kémbang régoelá
549 Kémbang sègérat
550 Kembang semak

551 Kémbang sëmak latar irëng
552 Kémbang sémboya
553 Kèmbang sèroeni
554 Kembang Sikatan
555 Kémbang sikattan latar iréng
556 Kèmbang soendoel langit
557 Kèmbang soeroeh
558 Kèmbang soewek
559 Kèmbang sore
560 Kèmbang sréngenge
561 Kèmbang tanyoeng
562 Kèmbang tanyoeng layon
563 Kémbang tarate
564 Kembang Tjengkeh
565 Kémbang téloeki
566 Kembang Telong
567 Kembang Temoe
568 Kembang Temoe-Selendang
569 Kémbang tiba
570 Kémbang Tjéngkeh
571 Kémbang tjéngkèh latar irëng.
572 Kèmbang Tjèpiring
573 Kémbang Tjina.
574 Kémbang tongkeng
575 Kémbang waloeh
576 Kembang Waroe
577 Kémbang waroe latar iréng.
578 Kémbang waron
579 Kémbang Wélándá
580 Kémbar
581 Kemladeyan
582 Kenaka
583 Kènángá
584 Kénanga di makan oelat
585 Kènángá jéntir
586 Kénángá jikét
587 Kènángá kampoeng
588 Kénängä latar iréng
589 Kenanga sari
590 Kèndagan
591 Kényat
592 Keong Emas
593 Keong Rambat
594 Kèpetek
595 Képiting latar poetih
596 Kèrangan
597 Kèraton
598 Kérisan
599 Kèsèmen
600 Kesoemo



601 Kestoebo
602 Kestoeri
603 Kethoprak
604 KéTjipiran
605 Kètongkeng
606 Kètower
607 Keyongan
608 Kidang kénTjáná
609 Kidjing Miring
610 Kidjing miring latar poetih
611 Kijing
612 Kijing wahäná
613 Kirnä mondä latar iréng
614 Kirno Mando
615 Klabang kamal
616 Klabangan
617 Kladoek manis
618 Klamboe latar poetih
619 Kláná latar irëng
620 Klanter
621 Klentang
622 Klewer
623 Klono Gandroeng
624 Kobardjo
625 Kodokan
626 Koeda Rante
627 Koekilá
628 Koekilo Asmoro
629 Koeldi
630 Koemitir
631 Koenir Pito
632 KoenTji
633 Koeping andjing latar ireng
634 Koepoe Anom
635 Koepoe gandroeng
636 Koepoe gandroeng latar irëng
637 Koepoe radja latar poetih
638 Koepoe Ranti
639 Koepoe Rawa
640 Koepoe rawis
641 Koepoe rawis latar poetih
642 Koepoe ráyá
643 Koepoe Taman
644 Koepoe toeroe
645 Koepon
646 Koepon latar ireng.
647 Koepon latar poetih
648 Koerá
649 Koesniá latar ireng
650 Koesnijá



651 Koesoemaningrat
652 KoeTjoeran
653 Kokrosono
654 Kolang-kaling
655 Komboran
656 Kongkang sembijang latar irëng
657 Kongkang sémbiyang
658 Kopi PeTjah
659 Kopi Petjah latar Poetih
660 Kotak Bodroyono
661 Kotak Slobok
662 KoTjak-kaTjik
663 Kowangan
664 Krambil SaTjoekil
665 Krambil satjoekil latar iréng.
666 KranTjis
667 Krété dédé latar iréng
668 Krokot lar
669 Krompol
670 Ladrang
671 Ladrang manis
672 Laleyan
673 Lamkare
674 Lamkarengan
675 Lapis latar irëng.
676 Lar
677 Lar moengä latar poetih
678 Lar Moengo
679 Lar rangkép
680 Lar sawat
681 Lárá Mèndoet
682 Laras ati latar iréng
683 Laras drijá latar irëng
684 Laras driyá
685 Laras Kongas
686 Lárás sèdoewá
687 Larasati
688 Láräsëdoewä latar iréng.
689 Lar-laran
690 Latar iyo
691 Lele ngarak
692 Lemed
693 Lengkong-lengkong
694 Lereng
695 Lereng Tjagak Talang
696 Lereng TjoeTjoek beloet
697 Leter
698 Limar
699 Limar galing
700 Limar kèdaton



701 Limar kémbang
702 Limar kètangi latar irëng
703 Limaran
704 Limaran Ketangi
705 Limaran latar ireng
706 Lindri
707 Lintang alih
708 Lintang trënggänä latar irëng.
709 Lintang Trenggono
710 Lintrik
711 Liris Poetih
712 Liris Tjemeng
713 Imá ranoe latar iréng
714 lmá-imä krénda latar poetih
715 lmä-imá tatit latar poetih
716 Loekito
717 Loeng
718 Loeng adas
719 Loeng adas latar irëng
720 Loeng adas latar poetih
721 Loeng anggoer
722 Loeng Bentoel
723 Loeng béntoel latar ireng
724 Loeng dalimá
725 Loeng dinar latar irëng
726 Loeng ETje
727 Loeng étjé latar irëng
728 Loeng gadoeng
729 Loeng gadoeng latar irèng
730 Loeng ganggéng
731 Loeng Gedawoeng
732 Loeng gedawoeng latar irëng
733 Loeng girang latar ireng.
734 Loeng Goemampir
735 Loeng kangkoeng
736 Loeng kangkoeng latar poetih
737 Loeng kare
738 Loeng katelá
739 Loeng kènaren
740 Loeng kënari latar irëng
741 Loeng kénèkër latar ireng
742 Loeng Kepet
743 Loeng Ketongkeng
744 Loeng këtongkèng latar irëng
745 Loeng klengkeng
746 Loeng klewer
747 Loeng klèwèr latar irëng
748 Loeng krantil
749 Loeng krokot
750 Loeng krokot latar iréng



751 Loeng krokot latar poetih
752 Loeng kroto
753 Loeng lèmèt latar ireng
754 Loeng manis
755 Loeng mawar
756 Loeng oeris latar iréng
757 Loeng pakis
758 Loeng pakis latar iréng
759 Loeng pakis latar poetih
760 Loeng paTjar
761 Loeng pèniti
762 Loeng Pernis
763 Loeng përnis latar iréng
764 Loeng régoelon latar poetih
765 Loeng sekotji latar poetih
766 Loeng semanggèn latar ireng
767 Loeng Sembagen
768 Loeng Sembodjo
769 Loeng sëtlop (ook wel këstlop) latar irëng
770 Loeng Slop
771 Loeng slop of setlop latar ireng.
772 Loeng srimpi latar poetih
773 Loeng Tandjoeng
774 Loeng tëlëng latar poetih
775 Loeng the
776 Loeng tjandi latar ireng
777 Loeng Tjempaloek
778 Loeng waloeh latar ireng
779 Loeng Widoeri
780 Loeng-loengan
781 Loer keong
782 Loer setrá
783 Lok Tjoan
784 Lokananta
785 Long Dawoeng
786 Lontang
787 Lontang kembang tanjoeng
788 Lontang loeng-loengan
789 Madoe Gondo
790 Madoe sinirat
791 Madoebrontá latar poetih.
792 Maliawan
793 Mándákaki
794 Manggaran
795 Manggisan
796 Mangkara
797 Manindras
798 Manoek alap-alapan
799 Manoek bango
800 Manoek barlin


801 Manoek bèloek
802 Manoek béri
803 Manoek dewátá
804 Manoek endol-endol
805 Manoek géntayoe
806 Manoek grigit
807 Manoek jatayoe
808 Manoek jiwátá oenjab
809 Manoek jonggrang
810 Manoek kablak
811 Manoek kèpèt
812 Manoek koeroeng
813 Manoek Krésna
814 Manoek manyoerá
815 Manoek mibèr
816 Manoek parang
817 Manoek ráwá
818 Manoek tarate
819 Manoek taroeng
820 Manoek tatit
821 Manoek Tjohoeng
822 Mantarsih
823 Margodadi
824 Mari-kangèn
825 Maroeto
826 Mas Ginoendjing
827 MaTjan kobar
828 MaTjan-maTjanan
829 Mawar Sari
830 Mboedoer
831 Mégat-roeh
832 Melati Selangsang
833 Melati selangsang latar poetih
834 Melati sepasang
835 Melati sedompol
836 Melinjon
837 Mémétahan
838 Ménjangan gringsing
839 Mentoel
840 Ményan kobar
841 Mérak angrém
842 Mérak kasimpir
843 Mérak ménTjélok
844 Mérak mènTjit
845 Mérak mibér
846 Mèrak ngigèl
847 Mérak ngigél latar poetih
848 Mérak simpir
849 Mèrang bodol
850 Mërang bodol latar poetih


851 Merang Kedjer
852 Mérang kedjer latar poetih
853 Meroe
854 Mideringrat
855 Mimilahan
856 Mindrasmárá
857 Mirong
858 Mirong latar iréng
859 Mlati rinontje
860 Mlindjo latar poetih
861 Mliwis
862 Mloyo
863 Moblong
864 Modang
865 Modang rawan
866 Modang Solo
867 Moelyo djati
868 Moelyowati
869 Nágá bisikkan latar poetih
870 Naga boelët latar irèng
871 Nägá dani latar iréng
872 Nágá gini latar poetih
873 Naga kirig latar irëng
874 Nágä latar poetih
875 Nágä pëksi latar iréng
876 Nägä poespá latar iréng
877 Nágá sásrá latar ireng
878 Nágá tápá latar iréng
879 Nágágini
880 Nagan
881 Nágáráyä
882 Nagäsari
883 Nagasari latar irëng.
884 Nagásásrá
885 Nágátápá
886 Nágátoemálá
887 Nam tikër latar poetih
888 Nam Batik
889 Nam-namman latar poetih
890 Nampan perak
891 Natar biron
892 Ngoelandoro
893 Niklang ngedi
894 Noes-noesan
895 Nogo djoyo
896 Nogo Gini
897 Nogo poespa
898 Nogo Rodjo
899 Nogo Sadjodo
900 Nogo Sinanding


901 Nogo Sosro
902 Nogo Topo
903 Nogo Wono
904 Nogo Yono
905 Nogosari
906 Nyaton
907 Nyoek
908 Obar
909 Obar-abir
910 Oebin
911 Oedan liris
912 Oedan liris latar poetih
913 Oedan mas
914 Oedan Tjaho
915 Oekèl pakis
916 Oekël pakis latar poetih
917 Oelá gonjing
918 Oelá toeroe
919 Oelèr kambang
920 Oelèr kambang latar poetih
921 Oempak
922 Oendoek alit
923 Oentoek banjoe latar iréng.
924 Oentoek banyoe
925 Oentoek banyoe ise
926 Oentoek banyoe nag
927 Oentoek soengoet
928 Oerang ajoe latar iréng
929 Oerang ayoe
930 Oerang oerangan latar irëng.
931 Oerang pletas.
932 Oerang sikat
933 Oerang-oerangan.
934 Oetjeng oedik
935 Oetil oetil gèndongan latar iréng
936 Oetjéng moedik latar poetih
937 Onang-onang sakebon
938 Onengan
939 Onëngan latar irëng
940 Ongko Widjoyo
941 Orak-arik
942 Orang Aring
943 Pagér Kétimoen
944 Pagersari
945 Pagi-Sore
946 Pakis
947 Pakis Tadji
948 Pakoeningrat latar poetih.
949 Palang
950 Pamiloeto


951 Pandan Iris
952 Pandan Leres
953 Pandèlégan
954 Panggang Lele
955 Panjang Gowang
956 Panjen Kasar
957 Panji
958 Panji Aloes
959 Panji Gènting
960 Panji Kénángá
961 Panji Kènari
962 Panji Kérémèk
963 Panji Késémèk
964 Panji Kintir
965 Panji Koeroeng
966 Panji Koyak
967 Panji Lintrik
968 Panji Mari-Kangen
969 Panji Nitik
970 Panji Oebin
971 Panji Sékétip
972 Panji Sérang
973 Panji Sérit
974 Panji Sikat
975 Panji Sisik
976 Panji Sosi
977 Panyi Tangkok
978 Papah Aren
979 Parang Angkik latar poetih
980 Parang Baladewa
981 Parang Baris
982 Parang Baris latar poetih
983 Parang Barong
984 Parang Barong Koetai
985 Parang Bintang latar irëng
986 Parang Blanggrëng latar poetih
987 Parang Daon
988 Parang Dimpil latar poetih
989 Parang Djenggot
990 Parang Djènggot latar poetih
991 Parang Esti latar poetih
992 Parang Gantoeng.
993 Parang Geloeng latar poetih
994 Parang Gendreh
995 Parang Godong
996 Parang Gondá latar poetih
997 Parang Gondokoesoema
998 Parang Gondosoeli
999 Parang Jejer
1000 Parang Jenggot


1001 Parang Kagok
1002 Parang Kaos latar irëng
1003 Parang Karná
1004 Parang Kémbang
1005 Parang kémbang latar poetih
1006 Parang Kembang Manggar
1007 Parang Kembang Tjoeboeng
1008 Parang Kèrná
1009 Parang Kesit
1010 Parang Késoelá.
1011 Parang Kirná latar poetih
1012 Parang Kirno
1013 Parang Kiting.
1014 Parang Klitik
1015 Parang Koeroe.
1016 Parang Koeroeng
1017 Parang Koeroeng latar irëng
1018 Parang Koesoemá latar poetih
1019 Parang Koesoemo
1020 Parang Krantil latar poetih
1021 Parang Kreno Srimpet
1022 Parang Krésná.
1023 Parang Laoet latar irëng
1024 Parang Lapis Troemtoem
1025 Parang Liris Glebak
1026 Parang Loreng.
1027 Parang Manggar.
1028 Parang Menang latar poetih
1029 Parang Mènang.
1030 Parang Méndoeng.
1031 Parang Ngèsti latar iréng
1032 Parang Oedet
1033 Parang Oekél latar poetih
1034 Parang Oekél.
1035 Parang Oelá latar poetih
1036 Parang Pakis latar poetih
1037 Parang Pakis.
1038 Parang Pamor
1039 Parang Pantjing latar poetih
1040 Parang Pari
1041 Parang Paroeng
1042 Parang Paroeng latar poetih
1043 Parang Peksi
1044 Parang Pléntong
1045 Parang Poespo
1046 Parang PoeTjang Klitik
1047 Parang Prajoeri
1048 Parang Ratoe Ratih
1049 Parang Reh.
1050 Parang Réjèng


1051 Parang Roesak
1052 Parang Roesak Kagok latar poetih
1053 Parang Roesak Klitik poetih
1054 Parang Roesak.
1055 Parang Sarpá latar poetih
1056 Parang Sarpakenaka
1057 Parang Sarpo
1058 Parang Sawoet
1059 Parang Sawoet latar poetih
1060 Parang Sélimpét
1061 Parang Semanggi
1062 Parang Sinoengging
1063 Parang Sisik.
1064 Parang Sobrah
1065 Parang Sobrah latar poetih
1066 Parang Soeli
1067 Parang Soeli latar poetih
1068 Parang Sonder
1069 Parang Sondèr latar poetih
1070 Parang Sonder.
1071 Parang Srimpi
1072 Parang Sroewá.
1073 Parang Tjanthel
1074 Parang Tjentoeng
1075 Parang Tèdjá latar poetih
1076 Parang Templek
1077 Parang Tjantèl latar poetih
1078 Parang Tjantel.
1079 Parang Tjengger latar poetih
1080 Parang Tjéntoeng
1081 Parang Tjéntoeng latar poetih
1082 Parang Tjinde
1083 Parang Tjindé latar poetih
1084 Parang Toeding
1085 Parang Wénang
1086 Parang Westi.
1087 Parang Yoengoet.
1088 Pare Anom
1089 Pare Wánáran
1090 Pari Sewoeli
1091 Parikésit.
1092 Pátáwálá.
1093 Patjar banyoe
1094 Peksi Adji
1095 Peksi Andong
1096 Peksi Bangoen Topo
1097 Pëksi Bido latar poetih
1098 Pëksi Blekok latar poetih
1099 Pëksi Darès latar poetih
1100 Peksi Gagak


1101 Pëksi Gagak latar irëng
1102 Pëksi Ganggëng latar iréng
1103 Pëksi Garoeda latar ireng
1104 Peksi Handon
1105 Péksi Handon latar poetih
1106 Pëksi Hoek latar iréng
1107 Peksi Kablak
1108 Péksi Kablak latar ireng
1109 Peksi Karing
1110 Peksi Kingkin
1111 Péksi kingkin latar poetih
1112 Peksi Kirna
1113 Peksi Koeroeng
1114 Peksi Koeroeng Latar Poetih
1115 Peksi Koewon
1116 Pëksi koewon latar poetih
1117 Pèksi Makoetá latar poetih
1118 Péksi Makoetä Rámá
1119 Péksi Manjoerá latar poetih
1120 Pëksi Oerang-oerangan irëng
1121 Pëksi Oetér latar poetih
1122 Peksi Orang orangan
1123 Peksi Rodjo
1124 Peksi Sikatan
1125 Pëksi Sikattan latar poetih
1126 Péksi Slènggrëng latar poetih
1127 Peksi Sonder
1128 Pèksi Taman latar poetih
1129 Peksi Tjangkloeng
1130 Pëksi Tjangak latar Poetih
1131 Pëksi Tjatoer latar iréng
1132 Pèksi Ziema
1133 Pèlaboehan Kamal
1134 Pélamboeng.
1135 Peleman latar poetih
1136 Pélëmman latar irèng
1137 Pèlëmman latar poetih
1138 Péndá-Péndá.
1139 Pendeleggan
1140 Péndëléggan latar poetih.
1141 Pendelikan
1142 Péngada
1143 Peni
1144 Perak Sinampan
1145 Pèrang Ménang
1146 Pérang Roesak
1147 PéTji Mayar.
1148 Pilih Asih
1149 Pilih Asih latar poetih
1150 Pinggiran


1151 Pintoe Ráyá.
1152 Pintoe Retno
1153 Pisang Woengkoel
1154 Pisang Bali
1155 Pisang Bali latar iréng
1156 Pisang Bali latar poetih
1157 Pisang Bali.
1158 Pisang Gono
1159 Platoek Bawang
1160 Plentong
1161 Poedak Mekar
1162 Poeng Garoedá
1163 Poengpoengan
1164 Poepá
1165 Poepoeyingan
1166 Poerbá
1167 Poerbákárá
1168 Poerbákoesoemá
1169 Poerbanegara
1170 Poerbanegarä latar irëng.
1171 Poerbaningrat
1172 Poerbaningroem
1173 Poerbaningsih
1174 Poerbáwijáyá
1175 Poerbonegoro
1176 Poerbosari
1177 Poerwo Retno
1178 Poespá Kérná
1179 Poespa Toeoedjoeng latar poetih .
1180 Poespá Wilis
1181 Poesporini
1182 Poe Tjoek Réboeng
1183 Poetri Solo
1184 Pongkang Sèmboja
1185 Pongpongan.
1186 Pontang in va
1187 PonTjot
1188 Potong Wayik
1189 Praboe Anom
1190 Praboe Romo
1191 Praboe Set
1192 Pragi Pringgi.
1193 Pramoegari
1194 Prang
1195 Prènis
1196 Pring Sédapoer.
1197 Pringgádani
1198 Pringgondani
1199 Proklamasi
1200 Radjo oeret


1201 Rägáhinä latar iréng
1202 Rámá gandroeng.
1203 Rámá.
1204 Ramboetan
1205 Ránggá
1206 Ránggá Poespitá.
1207 Ránggá Warsitá.
1208 Rangsang
1209 Rawan
1210 Ráyá Oeret
1211 Règoelá
1212 Régoelá Ngawi
1213 Regoelon
1214 Régoelon latar irëng (zie no hiervoren)
1215 Rëgoelon Siwallan latar poetih
1216 Rèmbang KaTjina
1217 Rémbang Rangoe.
1218 Rémboen.
1219 Réméng
1220 Rënggá latar irëng
1221 Rënggä Poespitä latar iréng
1222 Rengganis
1223 Réngganis latar iréng
1224 Réngganis.
1225 Reni
1226 Reyeng
1227 Ripi koening
1228 Riti riti
1229 Ritik.
1230 Riti-riti latar poetih
1231 Roempoek.
1232 Roeyak Sente ka
1233 Roeyak Sente.
1234 Roeyak Talés.
1235 Roeyak Woeni.
1236 Roeyak Yèroek.
1237 Rogohino
1238 Ron Semanggi
1239 Rondä Widätä latar poetih
1240 Rondo Widata
1241 Ronyokan.
1242 Sabagi
1243 Sábá-láná.
1244 Sákárini
1245 Salah ing Rahim
1246 Salak Sategal
1247 Salak Sategal latar poetih.
1248 Salak Tégal
1249 Salendro.
1250 Salobog.


1251 Sang Kobak
1252 Sang Nágá
1253 Sangga Langit.
1254 Sanggá Lewang.
1255 Sapit Oerang
1256 Sarang Boeroeng
1257 Sarasah
1258 Saroeng Sorotan,
1259 Satrijäwibäwá latar ireng.
1260 Satrio Wibowo Djangkep
1261 Satriyá Laláná.
1262 Satriyá Wibáwá.
1263 Satriyo Manah
1264 Sawah Sakèdok.
1265 Sawat Birowo
1266 Sawat Boekoeran.
1267 Sawat Bomá.
1268 Sawat Gándáwijaya
1269 Sawat Garoedá
1270 Sawat Géde.
1271 Sawat Gendong.
1272 Sawat Goenáwiyá
1273 Sawat Jéngoet.
1274 Sawat Kèmanten.
1275 Sawat Kèmbang.
1276 Sawat Kétandan
1277 Sawat Koepon.
1278 Sawat Loehoer
1279 Sawat Loka
1280 Sawat Manjoerá.
1281 Sawat Megáméndoe
1282 Sawat Ngeni
1283 Sawat Oelá.
1284 Sawat PaTjar
1285 Sawat Pènganten
1286 Sawat Poetro
1287 Sawat Rámá.
1288 Sawat Sálá.
1289 Sawat Sawér
1290 Sawat Séroenen.
1291 Sawat Soewiri Oek
1292 Sawat Soewiri.
1293 Sawat Tjoewiri
1294 Sawat.
1295 Sawen.
1296 Sawo Sémpal latar iréng.
1297 Sawo Sèmpal.
1298 Sawoeng Galing.
1299 Sawoet
1300 Sébagi


1301 Sedah Manyar
1302 Sedah Mirah
1303 Sékar
1304 Sekar Aroem Daloe
1305 Sekar Djambe
1306 Sekar Djati
1307 Sekar Giwang
1308 Sekar Gondoriyo
1309 Sekar Kapas
1310 Sekar KaTjang
1311 Sëkar Katjang latar iréng
1312 Sekar Keben
1313 Sekar Kepel
1314 Sekar Mondoliyo
1315 Sekar Polo
1316 Sekar Ratoe
1317 Sekar Remoedjoeng
1318 Sekar Sidogoeri
1319 Sekar Soekoen
1320 Sekar Soeryo
1321 Sekar Tate
1322 Sekar Teboe
1323 Sekar Teleng
1324 Sekar Temoe
1325 Sekar Waroe
1326 Sélimpèt
1327 Sélobog
1328 Sélobog Asmárád
1329 Sélobog Jántrá
1330 Sèlobog Lar-lar
1331 Sélobog Tjoeken.
1332 Semanggi
1333 Sèmangkan
1334 Semar Mesem
1335 Sëmarangan
1336 Sembagen
1337 Sembagen Anggrek
1338 Sèmbagen Gambir
1339 Sèmbagèn Hoek latar poetih
1340 Sèmbagen Kalong
1341 Sembagen Kembar
1342 Sémbagen Mènor
1343 Sèmbagen Ombak.
1344 Sémbagen Tjèloem
1345 Sèmbagen Tjérip
1346 Sémbagen.
1347 Sémbagi
1348 Sémen
1349 Semen Alit
1350 Sémen Angreni


1351 Sëmèn Antenar latar iréng
1352 Sémen Arjoená W
1353 Sémèn Baitá latar irèng
1354 Semèn Bèloek latar ireng
1355 Sëmèn Dèmpèt latar poetih
1356 Semen Djali
1357 Semen Djlekitit
1358 Semen Djlengoet
1359 Sëmèn Djlëngoet Garoedá latar poetih
1360 Semen Djogdja
1361 Sémèn Djolèn latar poetih
1362 Semen Gagakkan latar irèng
1363 Sèmèn Gédé latar iréng
1364 Sémèn Gëdé wragas poetih
1365 Sèmen Géde.
1366 Sëmèn Gèndong later irëng
1367 Sémen Gendong.
1368 Semen Giwang
1369 Semen Goenoeng
1370 Sémèn Goenoeng latar irèng
1371 Semen Goerdo
1372 Semen Goerdo Raddjo
1373 Semen Hok
1374 Sémen Jaléngoet
1375 Sémèn Jogjá latar irëng
1376 Sèmen Joli
1377 Semen Kagok
1378 Semen Kaloeng
1379 Sémèn Kaloeng latar poetih
1380 Semen Kasoet
1381 Sëmèn Kasoet latar irëng
1382 Sèmèn Katé latar poetih
1383 Semen Kebon
1384 Sëmèn kébon latar iréng
1385 Semen Kemladeyan
1386 Semen Keong
1387 Semen Kidang
1388 Semen Kipas
1389 Sèmèn Kipas latar irèng
1390 Semen Kladoek
1391 Sèmen Klawer
1392 Sëmèn Klèwèr latar poetih
1393 Sëmèn Koekilä latar iréng
1394 Semen Koekilo
1395 Sëmèn Koemboel latar irén g
1396 Semen Koeroeng Latar Poetih
1397 Sëmén Koewas latar poetih
1398 Semèn Kroen latar poetih
1399 Sëmèn Kroton latar poetih
1400 Semen Ladjoer


1401 Semen Loe
1402 Semen Lombok
1403 Sémèn Lombok latar irëng
1404 Sémèn Malèbari latar poetih
1405 Semèn Manjoera latar poetih
1406 Semen Menoro
1407 Semen Moelwo
1408 Semen Ngreni
1409 Sëmèn Ngrèni latar ireng
1410 Semen Oewer
1411 Sémèn Pèrsi latar iréng
1412 Sëmèn Pété latar poetih
1413 Sémèn Poering latar poetih
1414 Sémèn Poetér latar irëng
1415 Semen Pot
1416 Sëmèn Pot latar irëng
1417 Sémèn Praboe latar poetih,
1418 Sëmèn Prit latar poetih
1419 Semen Ragas
1420 Sëmèn Rámá latar poetih
1421 Sémen Rámá.
1422 Sémen Ranggas.
1423 Semen Rayoeng
1424 Semen Redjoenowidjoyo
1425 Sémen Réméng
1426 Sëmen Rëmëng latar irëng
1427 Sèmen Réngga
1428 Semen Roegos
1429 Semen Romo
1430 Semen Samoet
1431 Sèmen Sandi
1432 Semen Sawoet
1433 Semen Semeroe
1434 Semen Sidodadi
1435 Semen Sinom
1436 Sëmèn Sinom latar iréng
1437 Semen Sinto
1438 Semen Sirap
1439 Semen Slendri
1440 Sëmèn Sligi latar irëng
1441 Semen Sonder
1442 Sémen Sorásari
1443 Sémèn Srowot latar irëng
1444 Semen Tjoeboeng
1445 Semen Tjondro
1446 Sèmen èloeki
1447 Sémen Tjándrä.
1448 Sémen Tjélèkiti
1449 Sëmèn Tjèplokkan latar jrëng
1450 Sémen Tjilik


1451 Sémen Tjoewiri,
1452 Sémèn Tjondrä latar poetih
1453 Sëmèn Tjonil latar iréng
1454 Semen Tloetoer
1455 Sémen Tokol
1456 Sèmen Tritis
1457 Sèmèn Tritis latar poetih
1458 Semen Wose
1459 Sémèroe latar irëng
1460 Semoe Liris
1461 Sèmoekirang
1462 Sénggoeh
1463 Senggrang Nágás
1464 Senggreng 18
1465 Séprantoe
1466 Sérasah
1467 Sérasah Kébar,
1468 Sérasah Tjara M
1469 Seret.
1470 Seroem Wayang
1471 Seroenen
1472 Sèroeni Landak.
1473 Seto Koemiter
1474 Sidá Loehoer latar irëng
1475 Sidä Rëdjä latar poetih
1476 Sidagoeri.
1477 Sidämoekti latar irëng
1478 Sidangan
1479 Sido Asih
1480 Sido Loehoer
1481 Sido Loewoeng
1482 Sido Moekti
1483 Sido Moelyo
1484 Sidodadi
1485 Sidogori
1486 Sidokarso
1487 Sidoredjo
1488 Sidowoeyoeng
1489 Simá Ngalih
1490 Sinyang Giro.
1491 Sirah Gloendoengan
1492 Sirah Gloendoengan latar irëng
1493 Sirapan
1494 Sirappan latar irèng
1495 Sisirangan
1496 Slènggréng latar poetih
1497 Slobok
1498 Slobok Djamang
1499 Slobok Djamang latar irëng.
1500 Slobok Sekar Asem


1501 Slobok Sékar Asém latar ireng.
1502 Slobok Tjoekèn latar poetih.
1503 Slobrak
1504 Sobrah
1505 Sobrah latar iréng.
1506 Sobrah latar poetih
1507 Sobrang Gending
1508 Sobrang latar poetih
1509 Soebagi
1510 Soekmá Angén
1511 Soekowati
1512 Soelaman
1513 Soelamman latar iréng
1514 Soemäningrat latar irëng.
1515 Soemarsáná latar iréng
1516 Soemarsono
1517 Soemayar.
1518 Soembar Lintang
1519 Soemèdang.
1520 Soemping
1521 SoendoeI Langit.
1522 Soepit Kèpiting.
1523 Soepit Oerang
1524 Soepit Oerang latar iréng.
1525 Soeri Yáwá
1526 Soewiri
1527 Sogan Yéne
1528 Sogokan
1529 Sokorini
1530 Songgälangit latar poetih
1531 Sonyang
1532 Sorasari
1533 Sorasari Goemyoer
1534 Sorot
1535 Sorotan
1536 Srengengen
1537 Sri Dento
1538 Sri Koen Tjoro
1539 Sri Noegroho
1540 Sri Redjeki
1541 Sri Soewelo
1542 Sri Wedari
1543 Sri Wedari Tjeplok
1544 Sri Widadi
1545 Sriasih
1546 Sridadi
1547 Sridéntá
1548 Sridéntá Yoemáp
1549 Srigading latar irëng.
1550 Sriganti


1551 Srikandi. 1880.
1552 Srikaton
1553 Srikoyo
1554 Sripénah190
1555 Sriyatno
1556 Sroeni Landak latar irëng
1557 Talépokan
1558 Taloeki
1559 Tambal
1560 Tambal Kanomman.
1561 Tambal latar irëng.
1562 Tambal Miring.
1563 Tandjoeng Anom
1564 Tandjoeng Goenoeng
1565 Tanyoeng Beyo.
1566 Tapak Koetjing latar iréng
1567 Tapih KéTjil
1568 Tapih Sérasah.
1569 Tapih Talèpokan
1570 Tapih Tjinde.
1571 Taplak Latar Poetih
1572 Tarate
1573 Taroek Hata
1574 Taroepala
1575 Tatagati
1576 Tatit latar poetih
1577 Tatit Sawat
1578 Tjabe Rawit
1579 Tjakar Melik
1580 Tjakar Wok
1581 Tjakrawati
1582 Tjampoer Sari
1583 Tjandi Sastro
1584 Tjandra Koela
1585 Tjangklet
1586 Tjemoekiran Oosthoek
1587 Tjemoekiran Solo
1588 Tjemoekiran Yogya
1589 Tjenderawasih
1590 Tjendhani
1591 Tjepaka Moelya
1592 Tjepaka Sari
1593 Tjeplok Baris Kondoer
1594 Tjeplok Bibis
1595 Tjeplok Bintaroeng
1596 Tjeplok Birowo
1597 Tjeplok Blibar
1598 Tjeplok Djanoer Wendho
1599 Tjeplok Djloedjoet Roentoeng
1600 Tjeplok Ganggong



1601 Tjeplok Goesti Poetri
1602 Tjeplok Grameh
1603 Tjeplok Gringsing
1604 Tjeplok Kaos
1605 Tjeplok Kasatriyan
1606 Tjeplok Kawoeng Ningrat
1607 Tjeplok Kelan
1608 Tjeplok KeTji
1609 Tjeplok Kitiran
1610 Tjeplok Koesnia
1611 Tjeplok Koewari
1612 Tjeplok KoTji
1613 Tjeplok Kridodekso
1614 Tjeplok Lestari
1615 Tjeplok Loeng Kastlop
1616 Tjeplok Madoebronto
1617 Tjeplok Madoesari
1618 Tjeplok Manggis
1619 Tjeplok Mekar
1620 Tjeplok Melati
1621 Tjeplok Mendoet
1622 Tjeplok Moealangsih
1623 Tjeplok Moendoe
1624 Tjeplok Oentoek Banyoe
1625 Tjeplok Onde onde
1626 Tjeplok Pandiliran
1627 Tjeplok Paripoerno
1628 Tjeplok Pergiwo
1629 Tjeplok Pintoe Retno
1630 Tjeplok Poerbo Negoro
1631 Tjeplok Poewoko
1632 Tjeplok Proboaroem
1633 Tjeplok Renggo Poespito
1634 Tjeplok Sarimadoe
1635 Tjeplok Sekti Bali
1636 Tjeplok Sidomoen Tjoel
1637 Tjeplok Sidowayah
1638 Tjeplok Soebosito
1639 Tjeplok Soekoreno
1640 Tjeplok Soesilo
1641 Tjeplok Sriwedari
1642 Tjeplok Tata Gati
1643 Tjeplok Tjakrakoesoema
1644 Tjeplok Trenggiling
1645 Tjeplok Wibowo
1646 Tjeplok Widoro Laoet
1647 Tjeplok Wora wari
1648 Tjepoko Moelya
1649 Tjindelaras
1650 Tjloentang



1651 Tjoerigo
1652 Tjoewiri
1653 Tjoewiri Djogdjo
1654 Tjoewiri Gembel
1655 Tjoewiri Kartiko
1656 Tjoewiri Solo
1657 Tjokro Wibowo
1658 Tjokrobowo
1659 Tjokrokoesoemo
1660 Tjorang Tjakrik
1661 Tebeng
1662 Tëbëng latar iréng
1663 Teblem
1664 Tedjomaya
1665 Tèkek Koeroeng
1666 TèlaTjap
1667 TèlaTjap Kékémb
1668 TèlaTjap Loengloe
1669 TèlaTjap Saroeng
1670 Telekoen Angrem
1671 Tëlëkoen Angrëm latar poetih
1672 Télépoekan
1673 Tèloeken
1674 Téloeki
1675 Téloeki Tjendol.
1676 Tèrang
1677 Terang Boelan
1678 Tërang Boelan latar poetih
1679 Terongan
1680 Thoembs
1681 Tilar sa
1682 Ting latar poetih
1683 Tirtätèdja latar irëng
1684 Tirtotedjo
1685 Tjakar Ayam
1686 Tjakar latar irëng
1687 Tjakar Mélik latar ireng
1688 Tjakar Wok latar irëng
1689 Tjákrá
1690 Tjákrá Koesoemá.
1691 Tjakra Latar ireng.
1692 Tjakrakoemá latar iréng.
1693 Tjákräwála latar irëng.
1694 TjalaTjap
1695 Tjaloentang
1696 Tjampoer Bawoer.
1697 Tjándrá.
1698 Tjangapan
1699 Tjangklet
1700 Tjangkring



1701 Tjanklët latar poetih
1702 Tjap Kèyen
1703 Tjap Limar
1704 TjaTjing Sépiri
1705 Tjèbongan latar iréng.
1706 Tjeleng Kawénge
1707 Tjeleng Krokot.
1708 Tjeleng Mogok.
1709 Tjémárä
1710 Tjémékirang
1711 Tjémpáká
1712 Tjèmpáká Gondok
1713 Tjémpáká Kayon.
1714 Tjémpáká Moelyá
1715 Tjèmpaloekan
1716 Tjentel
1717 Tjepiring
1718 Tjèplok
1719 Tjéplok Bajém latar poetih.
1720 Tjéplok Banyi.
1721 Tjéplok Baroya
1722 Tjéplok Bendi
1723 Tjéplok Bintangan latar ireng.
1724 Tjéplok Bintara
1725 Tjëplok Bintaroem latar irëng
1726 Tjéplok Bogém.
1727 Tjèplok Danoerèd
1728 Tjèplok éndog.
1729 Tjéplok éntoeng.
1730 Tjéplok époen
1731 Tjèplok Goerameh
1732 Tjeplok Gori latar iréng.
1733 Tjeplok Gramèh latar ireng.
1734 Tjéplok Gringsi
1735 Tjèplok Kèdá
1736 Tjeplok Këlan latar poetih.
1737 Tjeplok Kénari latar ireng.
1738 Tjèplok KeTji.
1739 Tjeplok Koeroeng latar irëng
1740 Tjëplok Koesniä latar poetih.
1741 Tjéplok Koewari latar poetih.
1742 Tjeplok Kotji latar irëng.
1743 Tjéplok Lintang
1744 Tjèplok Liring.
1745 Tjèplok Manggis
1746 Tjeplok Manggis latar irëng
1747 Tjëplok Mendoet latar poetih
1748 Tjèplok Ménoer.
1749 Tjéplok Mlindjo latar poetih.
1750 Tjëplok Moendoe latar ireng.



1751 Tjéplok Ondé-ondé.
1752 Tjeplok Pálá latar poetih.
1753 Tjéplok Piring.
1754 Tjèplok Pohon
1755 Tjéplok PoTji.
1756 Tjéplok Praksi.
1757 Tjeplok Ranté latar poetih
1758 Tjëplok Sawo latar irëng.
1759 Tjeplok Setlop latar poetih.
1760 Tjéplok Slobok latar iréng.
1761 Tjéplok Tahoe.
1762 Tjèplok Tebok.
1763 Tjéplok Téloeki.
1764 Tjeplok Timang latar poetih.
1765 Tjéplok Tjangki
1766 Tjépoek Rante
1767 Tjépoek Rémoek
1768 Tjéréméndé latar iréng.
1769 Tjinde latar ireng
1770 Tjindé Wilis latar irëng.
1771 Tjinde Wilis.
1772 Tjinden
1773 Tjipta Rèngga.
1774 Tjitá, Tjitah.
1775 Tjloentang latar ireng.
1776 Tjoemèngkirang.
1777 Tjoewiri
1778 Tjoewiri latar irëng
1779 Tjokrak Tjakrik latar irëng
1780 Tloeki
1781 Tloeki latar poetih
1782 Toempal
1783 Toempal Kampoeng
1784 Toempal Koepoe
1785 Toempal Lintang
1786 Toendjoeng Karoban
1787 Toendjoeng Karobban latar irëng.
1788 Toendjoeng Rante latar irëng
1789 Toendjoeng Tirtä latar irèng
1790 Toendjoeng Tirto
1791 Toenjoeng
1792 Toenjoeng Karoba
1793 Toenjoeng Madoerá
1794 Toenjoeng Manoek.
1795 Toeronggo Djati
1796 Trang Boelan
1797 Trang Lintang.
1798 Trate
1799 Trate Kémbang
1800 Trate Koeroeng



1801 Traté latar irèng
1802 Trénggiling
1803 Trénggiling Méntik latar irëng
1804 Tri Boesono
1805 Triloka
1806 Troemtoem Troent
1807 Troentoem
1808 Troentoem Koeroeng.
1809 Troentoem latar iréng
1810 Wader
1811 Wader Pari


1812 Wahyoe Toemoeroen
1813 Walang Kadak
1814 Waloelin.
1815 Wáná Kabésmi
1816 Waringin Koeroeng
1817 Wayang Damar Woe
1818 Wayang Kénari
1819 Wayang Prenis.
1820 Wayang Sigég
1821 Wayikan
1822 Widárá Gèlar.


1823 Widaran Banyar
1824 Widaran.
1825 Wilmoeká.
1826 Winarno
1827 Wirangrong.
1828 Woráwari Roempoek
1829 Wora-wari Roempoek latar iréng.
1830 Yana
1831 Yoedistirá
1832 Yoeyoekaring

The data in 1832, the ancient batik motive names mentioned above are mentioned from several sources, among others are the book written by J.E. Jasper En Mas Pirngadie entitled DE BATIKKUNST ; in 1916 a book written by G.P. Rouffear En H.H. Juynboll entitled DE BATIKKUNST ; in 1914 and also some collections of batik motive patterns of TJOKROSUHARTO.
Sekarang mungkin banyak nama motif batik diatas yang telah jarang kita jumpai sehingga perlu kiranya kita untuk ikut melestarikannya. Walau mungkin telah banyak motif yang sudah tidak kita jumpai lagi, tetapi dalam perkembangannya muncul nama-nama motif batik baru.
 
 
III. THE EQUIPMENT OF BATIK CANTING PROCESS

1. THE EQUIPMENT TO MAKE BATIK CANTING
From time to time the process of making batik traditionally hasn’t changed much up to now. Looking at the forms and functions of batik equipments are very traditional and unique, suitable with the ways which are still traditional. The traditional batik equipment is a part of the traditional batik itself, because if the change is done by using modern machines, it will change the name of traditional batik into batik motive cloth. It shows that the way to make batik has a special characteristic with the result of the traditional batik art. If we see from the time and amounts produced, they are quite limited and the art creation from the canting drawing onto mori cloth which will produce the relatively expensive and valuable batik art.

A. Bandul
Bandul is made from tin, or wood, or stone which is put in a pocket. the main function of bandul is to hold back the white cloth (mori) in which batik is being made in order not to move blown by the wind, or the pulling of batik maker by accident. But without bandul, the making of batik can be done.


 
C. Dingklik
Dingklik is the seat of batik maker,the height is adjusted with the height of person sitting when making batik.

 
D. Gawangan
Gawangan is made from wood or bamboo which is movable and strong. The function is to hang and spread out the mori cloth when batik will be made by using canting.


E. Wajan
Wajan (frying pan) the equipment to melt “malam” (candle to make batik). Wajan is made from steel or loam. It’s better to have a handle in order to be easy to lift up or get down from the fire without using another equipment. Therefore wajan that is made from loam is better than that of from metal because the handle is not hot easily. But wajan from the loam is slower to heat “malam”.


 
F. Anglo (STOVE)
Anglo is made from the loam, or another material. Anglo is fire equipment to melt “malam”. Stove is made from iron in which the wick is given. If using anglo,so the material to make the fire is charcoal from wood. If using fire wood, anglo is changed with “keren” : this keren is much used in the villages. Basically keren is the same with anglo, but it doesn’t have the upper layer.


G. Tepas (FAN)
Tepas is not used if the fire uses a stove. Tepas is a tool to make the fire bigger depending on the need ; and is made from bamboo. Besides tepas, ilir is also used. Basically tepas and ilir are the same, only the form is different. Tepas’ form is square and pointed at one of the width and the handle is at the pointed part.


H. Taplak(TABLE CLOTH)
Its function is to cover and protect the batik maker’s tigh from the drop of malam (candle) from canting.

 
I. Kemplongan
Kemplongan is a tool made from wood of which form is like table and hammer and it’s used to soften the mori cloth before it’s given batik motive pattern and made.
J. Canting
Canting is a tool to draw or paint with malam candle drawing onto the mori. Canting determines the name of batik that will be produced to become drawing batik. This tool is made from the mixture of copper and wood or bamboo which is flexible and light.
Canting Can Be Differentiated Into Some Kinds :
 
a. According to the function
- Canting Reng-rengan
Canting reng-rengan is used to make batik reng-rengan. Reng-rengan (ngengrengan) is first drawing according to the pattern before it’s done further. The person who makes batik reng-rengan is called ngengreng. The pattern is the drawing which is used as a model sample. Reng-rengan means framework. Usually canting reng-rengan is used especially to make its pattern framework, while isen or the content of the part in which batik is made uses canting isen according to the content of the part wanted. Batik from the result of taking the sample from the batik pattern framework or together with the content is called Polan. Canting reng-rengan has a singular and middle tip.
-.Canting Isen
Canting isen is canting to make the content, or to fill polan. Canting isen has either singular or double small tip.


 
b. According to how big is the tip
Canting can be differentiated into :
- Small canting carat (tip)
- Middle canting carat
- Big canting carat


 
c. According to the number of carat (tip)
Canting can be differentiated into :
- Canting cecekan.
Canting cecekan has one tip, small, and is used to make small dots (Javanese : cecek). A person who makes dots by using canting cecekan is called “nyeceki”. Besides to make small dots for the content, canting cecekan is also used to make small lines.
- Canting loron.
Loron derives from the word loro which means two. This canting has double tips, up and down to make double lines.
- Canting telon
Telon is from the word three. It has three tips with the form triangle. If canting telon is used for making batik, so it will be seen triangle which is formed from three dots as a content.
 
 
- Canting prapatan
Prapatan is from the word four. So this canting has four tips, used for making four dots forming a square as a content.
- Canting liman
Liman means five. This canting has five tips to make a small rectangle which is made from four lines and one dot in the middle.
-. Canting byok
Canting byok is canting that has seven tips or more, used for forming a small circle containing dots ; a dot or more, according to the amounts of the tips, or how small or big the circle is. Canting byok usually has odd tips.
-Canting renteng or galaran
Galaran derives from the word galar, a bed made from bamboo which is formed horizontal. Renteng is a set of things in lines ; the way to arrange is by pricking.
Canting galaran or renteng always has even tips ; four tips or more : maximally six tips, arranged from the bottom and up.

 
The Pictures of Canting Form

2. MORI CLOTHI
Mori is the main material of batik from cotton. The qualities of mori are various, and the kinds will determine the result of batik painting. Because the need of mori from some cloth is not the same, the following information might be useful :
1.The size of mori
 
Mori which is needed is related to the length of cloth wanted. There is also a certain need like udheng or head cover. Udheng’s size can be more or less than the need ; therefore it cannot be used suitable with the common use. But cloth’s size is not certain. If short, it will influence the perfection of its usage ; if it’s longer, it will add the perfection in the usage.
 
The way to measure is only to hold both corners of mori on the wide side and attach one of the corner to the length side across the width of mori. If you will take some kacu , so hold the corner of mori by using right and left hand by turns, attach the same length side by folding the mori.
 
2. The need of mori    
 
Dodot cloth (batik wraparound worn by courtiers and bridegrooms) needs 7 kacu of mori. Dodot cloth is usually used by the Royal family or the classic dancers. But because the price is expensive, so the function of dodot cloth is replaced with the common and long cloth. The side cloth needs 2 or 2,5 kacu, according to the desire or the size of the user. Udheng needs one kacu of mori. There are two kinds of udheng; “udheng lembaran” ( head cover cloth in sheet form) and “udheng jadi” ( finished head cover). The finished head cover (udheng jadi) is already formed, so the person uses it directly. Actually it just needs a half kacu of cloth, and cuts it diagonally.
While “udheng lembaran” ( head cover in a sheet form) is formed when using it on the head of the user. After he finishes, it is taken off again. The last udheng needs one kacu of mori ; but practically it can be just a half kacu, another half is folded inside only as a thickness. Therefore udheng lembaran’s batik can be made based on two kinds of batik motive with one of the edges is diagonal. In term of udheng , the user is free to choose which motives will be put outside.



 
3. Processing mori before being made into batik
Before being made into batik, mori has to be processed first. The good processing will determine the good cloth. The processing of mori is as follow : Mori that has been cut is folded. Folded here means sewn at the cutting in order that “pakan” thread doesn’t lose. Benang pakan (“pakan” thread) is thread that crosses on the weaving. After being folded , then it is washed with water until clean. If mori is dirty, so the dirt will retain the absorption of candle liquid (malam material to make batik) and retain the colour liquid in the process of washing. In Yogyakarta and Surakarta mori is sun-dried until it’s dry after being washed. But in Blora (Central Java), after being washed, then mori is boiled.


 
After wantu is hot, clean mori is put inside. The way to put mori inside wantu, starts from the edge up to the end in order. The boiling takes a few minutes. Then mori is lifted and washed to release the dirt when it is boiled. After being washed, then it needs to be dried. Mori gets soft; then it is hardened with kanji. The material of kanji is from rice. In Blora, any rice is used as long as it is white. Rice is put in the water for a few minutes ; then rice together with its water are boiled. Its water is taken and called tajin. The dry mori is put inside tajin all over ; without being pressed, it is directly dried, and finally becomes stiff.
After mori is damp, then it is hit on the certain place with a certain way , in order that the thread becomes loose and limp, so the candle liquid can be absorbed. The hitting is called “dikemplong”.

 
 
 
After being hit (dikemplong), we can determine the batik motive wanted. If we want parang-parangan motive, or another motive that needs a certain shape, so lines must be made on mori first. The function of puting lines is to determine the motive place in order to be tidy. An expert batik maker doesn’t use the lining. The small or big of the line isn’t same, depending on the batik motive planning. Usually the wood ruler shapes rectangle.
 
The way to move the wood ruler after the first to the second line is by turning around, without lifting it. So the width of the space between the lines is determined by the amounts of the wood ruler turning. Mori in which semen motive batik will be made, doesn’t needs to be lined, directly doubled with the pattern on the mori face vice versa. After all finish, so the batik making process can be started.
 
 
3. CANDLE (“MALAM”)
Candle or “malam” is the material used to make batik. Actually “malam” isn’t used up (lost), because finally it will taken back in the washing process,the making process till becoming batik cloth. In term of “malam”, it can be explained as follows :
  1. The Kinds of Malam and Its Mixture
 
“Malam” that is used for making batik has various types. The quality affects on the absorption power, color that can affect mori color , the
softnes of the liquid, etc.
Therefore, its prices are different one another. But in our usage, it depends on the need.

The types of “malam” are :

 

“Malam Tawon” (bee) is “malam” that is taken from bee nest (tolo tawon). Tolo tawon is separated from the eggs by boiling them.
 

“Malam Klanceng” is “malam” from the nest of Klanceng bee, and taken by the same way above.
 

“Malam Timur” is the best “malam”. This type hasn’t been known about the material.
 

“Malam Sedang”(middle malam) the material and origin hasn’t been known.
 

“Malam Putih” (white malam) taken from latung oil made in factory.
 

“Malam Kuning” (yellow malam) taken from latung oil made in factory.
 

“Malam Songkal” taken from latung oil made in factory. Its color is black and only for mixture.
 

Keplak is the mixture material.
 

Gandarukem is the mixture material.
 
  2. The Mixing Way of Malam
 
The rule to mix malam is as follows:
White malam as many as 100 pieces of cent coins (cent money in Dutch period) with black malam (sangkal) 50 pieces of cent coins, and “Malam Klanceng”
50 pieces of cent coins. or “Malam Timur” 100 pieces of cent coins with
“malam” from the used batik that has got “wedelan” as many as 50 pieces of cent coins, and malam klanceng 50 pieces of cent coins.

4. THE BATIK PROCESS
 
Mori that has been hit (dikemplongi) and lined, if it will be made in parang-parangan batik motive or the other motives which need a certain shape and straight, it is usually made without using the pattern (dirujak). The person who makes this batikan is called “ngrujak”. She is already an expert. But for the beginner or learner usually just “nerusi” or “ngisen-ngiseni” (to continue or to fill). While making batik by using pattern has been explained before. Both making batik rujak and making batik using the pattern are usually done by the experts, because the beginning level is the determination how good the batik form as the whole is.
     
1. The Preparation of Making Batik
  a.
Keren, or anglo (fire tool) and frying pan containing “malam” must be prepared to start making batik. “Malam” must be in good liquid. In order to get out through canting tip well; besides that malam can be absorbed well into mori. The fire in the anglo or keren should be kept burning, but cannot flame, because it is dangerous iflicking malam inside the frying pan.
  b.
Mori that has been prepared must be on gawangan near anglo or keren. The maker sits between gawangan and keren or anglo. Gawangan stands the left side and keren on the right side of the maker. The person whose job is making batik is called “pengobeng”.
  c.
After all are ready, the maker starts her work. First holding canting. The way to hold canting is different from holding a pen, or pencil to write. The difference is caused by the top of canting tip has curve form and big pipe, while pen or pencil are straight. Holding canting is with top thumb, pointed finger, and middle finger like holding a pencil to write, but the canting handle is horizontal while pencil to write is leaning.That position of canting like that is to keep malam in the container not to be spilled.
  d.
With the canting, the maker (pengobeng) takes the boiling malam in the frying pan, then making batik on the mori. Before it is made, canting is blown first, the way to blow also uses a certain rule, in order that malam inside the container/nyamplungan not to be spilled on the maker’s lips.
Canting which is blown is meant:
  1.
To return malam liquid back to the tip inside container (nyamplungan), in order not to drop before the tip of canting is attached on the mori.
  2.
To vanish malam liquid that wets the canting tip ; because the canting tip that smeared with malam liquid will reduce the quality of scratch, especially when canting is first processed on the mori.
  3.
To control the canting tip from the possibility of being clogged up by the dirt of malam. If it is clogged up, so the liquid inside the container (nyamplungan) doesn’t sound, because the air cannot enter. So the hole of the point tip is pricked using ijuk, or coconut coarse till it enters along the tip. Usually after being pricked, it’s blown again, or directly made on the mori. The specialty of pricking is using the left hand with a certain way quickly.

  4.
Canting in a good condition is then, scratched on the mori. The left hand is on the other side of mori, as a basis of mori that is being scratched by canting. If malam liquid inside the container is used up, or doesn’t run well, perhaps because of the coldness, so malam should put back into the frying pan ; canting is dipped up to malam liquid in the frying pan. The return of
cold malam liquid doesn’t have a big effect to malam in the frying pan. It is done till the end, and includes covering the certain parts with malam.(nemboki).
       
2. The Steps of Making Batik
The steps of making batik on the mori must be done step by step. Each step can be done by different person but a piece of mori cannot be done by different person in the same time.
Those steps are:
  a. Making the framework
   
Making the framework by using the pattern is called “mola”, while without the pattern is called “ngrujak”. Mori in which batik is already made in the form of framework, either after using the pattern or “ngrujak” is called “batik kosongan”, or “klowongan”. Canting that is used is middle tip canting (canting cucuk sedang), that is also called canting klowongan.
  b. ngisen-iseni
   
Ngisen-iseni is from the word “isi” (content). So it means to give content or to fill.Ngisen-iseni by using small tip canting is also called “canting isen” which is various. But a piece of mori doesn’t always use all kinds of canting isen, but depending on the motive that will be made. For instance it needs various kinds of canting isen because of the variety. But making batik must be one by one, and each part must be finished before another part is done with another canting, for example “nyeceki” (making motive consisting of dots), this part should be finished all.
   
The activity of doing the parts has its own name ; the name is based on the canting name used. The process of giving the name is by changing the canting name into verb, while the result of the work is taken from the name of canting used. The names are: nyeceki, that is using canting cecekan, the result is cecekan. Neloni is using canting talon, the result is called telon. Mrapati is using canting prapatan, etc. But using canting galaran or canting renteng, is always called ngalari, and never called “ngrentengi”; while the result is always called “galaran”, never called“rentengan”.

The way to use canting from one type to another has many advantages. The first is canting can be used in turn for a group of “pengobeng” (makers of different work), they have different step of work. The second advantage is to reduce the numbersof canting in the same type, although the members of makers are many. If twopersons want to use the same canting at the same time, while there is only one canting, so one of them can delay it and change another work with differentcanting.Batik with complete content is called “reng-rengan”. Because the name isreng-rengan so the maker who makes since the first time till the end is called “ngengreng”. So“ngengrengan” is the unity of motive from the whole wanted. That’s the first finishing.

  c. Nerusi
   
Nerusi is the second finishing. Batikan in the form of ngengrengan is then, turned the surface, and made again on the second surface. Making nerusi is making batik which follows the first batikan motive on the track of pricking. Nerusi is the same with mola and the first batikan process functions as pattern. Its canting is used the same with that of for ngengreng nerusi especially to thicken the pricking of the first batikan making process and also to clear the finish batikan at this stage. It is still called “ngengrengan”. The maker (pengobeng) who makes from the first till finishes nerusi is called “ngengreng”.
  d. Nembok
   
A batik is not all given color, or will be given various colors at the finishing to be cloth. So, the parts that will not be given color, or will be given color after other parts must be covered with malam. The way to cover it is the same with making batikan at other parts by using canting tembokan. Canting tembokan has a big tip.
The doer is called “Nembok” or “Nemboki” and the result is called “tembokan”. The parts that will be covered with malam usually among the main motives. Nembok usually uses the low quality of malam. Although malam is full with dirt, but canting that has big tip doesn’t have a problem. Besides that, covered parts are big and thick enough, so the bad malam used to cover can be overcome.
   
Basically, malam functions are toform motives, to cover the stages of giving color into the cloth, in which actually color is to form batik motive. Nembok is only in the front face of mori.
  e. Bliriki
   
Bliriki is to continue the covering (nemboki) so that the some certain parts are really covered. Bliriki uses canting tembokan and the way is the same as nemboki.

If the last stage has finished, it means that the process finishes as well. The result of bliriki is called “blirikan”, but it is rarely called like that, usually called “tembokan”. Actually making batik is called finish if the last process finishes; or if the batik doesn’t need covering, so batik finishes before covering. Long time ago in Surakarta, after the stages finish, batikan was dried till “malam” almost melt.
   
Drying was meant in order that candle in mori wasn’t easily lost. Because “malam” (boiled) when it was used to make batik and stick with cold mori would freeze suddenly because of the quick process. The freezing of malam like this is not good, because batikan is sometimes broken, and malam is lost easily.
   
But if it is dried, the heating process will happen throughout, and mori is also heated. Mori that gets sunlight will expand and can absorb. The expanding process strengthen the sticking of malam that starts to melt; before it is melt, batikan should be lifted carefully in the cool place. In the cool place, batikan will freeze throughout.
   
This cooling process has an advantage, because between mori and malam strengthen the sticking each other. Then the batikan work is done.
       
5. MBABAR
Mbabar is the finishing process from batikan to be cloth. After batikan is really covered, we come to the next work, that is to process it to be cloth. In some areas, the way to do mbabar is basically the same.
The difference is only the comparison of the material used. There is one area in which the comparison of the mixed material has been fixed suitable with the cloth wanted. But there is also an area that doesn’t use the fixed comparison and only uses estimation based on the experience. Besides that, the difference is also on the duration needed for each mbabar stage. There are some persons using the certain duration, but some others only use the estimation. The differences influence the quality of cloth produced by every area. It is possible because on the mbabar stage, there is a chemical process; while ‘time’ has a big effect on the chemical process. But this process hadn’t been known deeply by the persons who did mbabar long time ago.

1. The Material for Mbabar
Generally to process batikan to be cloth (mbabar), we use the natural material with simple process. Indonesia is rich with the natural resources.
The materials for mbabar are :
  a. NILA
   
Nila is from tarum plant. (Java tom). Since the ancient period, tarum was used to make the clothes color. Nila was used to make batikan with other materials.
  b. TEBU(sugar cane)
    Sugar cane is taken from the sugar or its drops, for the mixture.
  c. ENJET(lime for chewing with betel leaves/ kapur sirih)
    It is used for the mixture.
  d. TAJIN
    It is boiling water when cooking rice.
  e. SOGA
    Soga is the name of plant from papilionaceae family and has a yellow color.
  f. SAREN
   
Saren is from the word sari which means core or essence. In Java there is a word “saren” which means the cow blood that is cut and cooked. Here, saren is a materialor mixture from several materials to dip batikan after soga. And this stage is to release“malam”, or or get close to the finishing.
       
2. The Process of Batikan into Cloth
This process is devided into several stages and must be finished in order. If batikan has been covered completely, the work improves to the first step of changing batikan into cloth.
The steps are s follows:
  A. Medel And Mbironi
   
The main material for medel is nila (tarum). First, prepare water 24 pikul, one pikul is about 40 liters. A container is filled with 21 pikul and another is empty. A container that contains water is then given latak. Latak is the sediment of nila liquid. The amounts of latak are 3 pikul, steered in the morning and afternoon for 2 or 3 days. In the morning of the third or fourth day, if the condition of latak in the mixture has looked black, so the water above the sediment is taken and moved to the empty container.
The sediment of mixtured latak is added with new latak as many as 2 pikul and sugar drop for one batok ( batok is meant coconut shell divided into two, and the flesh is taken). The color of the mixture will get yellow. In the afternoon it is added with black nila for 1,5 big bowls (pinggan).
   
The next morning at about 6 am, batikan can already be entered into the black nila in the container (jambangan). Nila in such amount is for 30 pieces, each 2,5 kacu. The dyeing takes about 2 hours; after that they are lifted from soaking and put on the hangers without being spread, till there is no water drop (atus). The lifting from the soaking and the placement till subsiding (atus) is called “kasirep” (“kasirep” is taken from the word sirep which means “subside”). If it subsides (atus), then it is entered into nila again for two hours, then lifted and sun-dried until dry. The second lifting and sun-drying is called “kageblogi” (it is from the word “geblok” which means a way to hit, or a group measurement).

   
After batikan is dry, it is entered again into nila. This work is done several times, till batik gets black. If batikan is already black, the work stops. Nila after the dyeing is added with the sediment of nila 1,5 big bowls soon. This addition is called “nglawuhi” (it is from the word lawuh which means side-dish for eating). But the meaning and function of nglawuhi in the process to change batik into cloth (mbabar) is as a perfection. Now nila is yellow. If it is too yellow, it will be dangerous because it can drop off “malam”, while malam function on mori hasn’t finished. Being too yellow is caused by the lack of enjet (lime for chewing with betel leaves/kapur sirih). But if there are too many enjet, the color will get green, cannot make batikan black. To return the color to be yellow, it is enough to be given Java vinegar or sugar drop.
    If it’s not yellow, give sugar drop and vinegar till the color becomes yellow according to the need. After that, enter batik into nila mixture like mentioned above. Now batik is completely black. After it is enough, batikan is lifted and washed into plain water and dried in the cool place.
   
Batikan that has been dry is soaked in water till “malam” bluduk. (bluduk is like a condition to drop off). “malam” in reng-rengan and terusan batik are rubbed down by using a special tool till clean: while “malam” in blirikan and tembok aren’t rubbed. Batik that has been rubbed is then washed again (dibilas) till the washing water is clean, and dried again in the cool place.
After batikan is dry, then give kanji (layer) by using “spoiled tajin” with cane sugar. The comparison of the mixture is 3 glasses of tajin and sugar as weight as 3 pieces of cent coin. After being given kanji, batikan is dried again. After being dry, parts that need blue color are given blue (dibironi). Before it, parts that don’t need blue color are covered with “malam”. The way to cover is the same with making tembokan and bliriki batik. After it has finished, we come to the third stage that is “soga”.

   
Then batikan is given blue color, Batik reng-rengan must be rubbed till clean like the way above. After being rubbed, then it is washed and dried, or without being dried, but directly dipped into “tajin” (disekuli),then dried. If it is dry, it is then given blue color. The difference from the previous way is without the first drying. Besides that, the comparison of nila mixed with other material isn’t certain, but depending on the estimation of the maker. That is perhaps the defeat in wedelan stage.
  B. Nyoga
   
After being given blue color (mbironi) and dry, batikan is given soga. The steps are: batikan is folded spirally (diwiru). After that, enter into a container which contains warm soga, then press the whole. Then it is lifted, and spread on that container in order that soga can drop to that container again. If soga doesn’t drop again, then sun-dry till half dry, moved to a cool place till completely dry. Up to here, this is still the first step of giving soga; the usage of each soga will be different on the level.
   
After finishing nyoga, batikan is given saren (nyareni). Chalk and sugar mix with water in a container, steer until shattered. After settling, soaking water is poured into kenceng (a kind of container). Batikan is entered into kenceng till the whole parts; then lifted till subside. After subsiding, hit in hot water in order that “malam” will lose. Hitting in hot water is called “nglorot” or “nglungsur”.
   
After batikan is hit in hot water, then washed and sun-dried. The sun-drying of batikan is called “dikemplang”. Till this stage is called “ambabar”. Every morning batikan in the form of cloth is condensed. Now, the process of mbabar batikan has finished.
 
IV. THE EQUIPMENT OF PRINTED BATIK PROCESS

a. Mattress (Bantalan)
 
It is made from cotton that is wrapped with cloth, functions as mori cloth layer that will be printed.
b. Table cloth (Taplak)
 
It is made from cotton cloth function as mattress layer.
c. Stove (Kompor)
 
Made from iron by using wick, function as the fire when melting malam candle.
d. Big Anglo
 
It is made from earthenware, function as a fire place in which in the middle, stove is put to protect fire from the wind so that fire can burn still.
e. Table
 
It is made from wood, function to put mattress.
f. Loyang
 
It is made from iron and forms as afrying pan with flat base and has a diameter 40 cm, functions as a candle place when being heated.
g. Angsang
 
It is made from copper with the surface of plaited line which is put on loyang. The function is a basic layer on loyang surface.
h. Rough Serak and Soft Serak
 
They are made from cotton cloth with the form like gauze, function as layer on angsang to put the print when taking malam candle that has melted.
i. Londo
 
Like small container containing water and ash, function to wet the mattress in order to be wet when it will be used to put mori to be printed.
j. Printing Tool
 
It is made from copper with iron combination with a surface of batik motive. This tool is to put malam candle with batik motive on mori surface.
   
STAGES IN PRINTED BATIK PROCESS
   
1. Pengukuran Mori
   
   
2. Pemotongan
3. Ngloyori Mori
 
 
4. Menjemur setelah diloyori
 
6. Proses Cap Klowong
 
5. Ngemplong Mori
 
7. Proses Cap Nerusi
 
9. Menjemur untuk melelehkan malam
   
8. Proses Cap Neboki
 
10. Proses Wedelan
12. Proses Nyekul/penganjian
11. Proses Ngeroki
13. Proses Bironi
14. Proses Nyogo
15. Proses Ngloroti
16. Proses Angin-angian
 
V. THE USE OF BATIK CLOTH

Jarik is batik cloth which has various motives. Long time ago, nyamping or jarik that was used was usually in the form of painted batik, but this time it seems that printed batik is often used as well.
The use of batik motive, in fact has some differences between old time and present time. In the old time, there were some strict rules about batik motives that could be worn by someone.
The determination was based on:
  a. The royal descent
  b. The position
  c. The opportunity
But at this time, the determination hasn’t been known anymore, so there is a freedom in using the batik motives. The determination based on the three things above will be discussed one by one, yet in one meaning, that the term was valid in the old time or if it is for the present time, it is only valid in certain places only.
A. The Use of Batik Based on the Royal Descent
There are some certain motives which are only allowed to be worn by the royalty, especially the King, his family and relatives only, for instance: his children, his grandchildren, his brothers and sisters, and his assistants. The motives are for instance: parang motives (it has been mentioned previously).
Parang Klithik Parang Rusak Parang Gendreh Parang Barong Parang Kusumo
Parang Kesit
Parang Baris Parang Centhung Parang Gondosuli Parang Pamor Parang Pari Parang Ukel
and etc
B. The Use of Batik Based on the Position
It is meant for the staffs and assistants who are employed by the king, for example: the Vice King (Patih), Tumenggung, Mantri, Regent (Bupati), Panewu, etc. They can wear the same batik motives with his relatives.
C. The Use of Batik Based on the Opportunity
It is meant to be some certain ceremonies or meeting, like:
1. To attend a wedding ceremony;
Semen Romo
Babon Angrem
Ceplok Mendut
Abimayu
Kladuk Manis
Buntal Wayang
2. For brides’ parents in the wedding ceremony;
Sidodrajat
Wirasat
Truntum Delimo
Truntum Pintu Retno
3. For the brides’ parents in Siraman ceremony (Bathing the brides);
Nitik
Nogosari
Grompol
Cakar
4. For the bride and bridegroom in the wedding ceremony;
Sidomukti
Sidoasih
Sido Luhur
Sidomulyo
5. To the funeral ceremony, the motives used are with black background.
   
Cuwiri
Gabah Sinawur
   
6. For those who wear traditional dress daily.
· Tambal Sewu,
· Kepet, dan juga beberapa motif semen.
7. For “patutan” ceremony (7 months pregnancy),
· Sidoasih
· Sido luhur
· Sido mulyo
· Sido mukti
· Semen room
· Semen Gurdo
8. For those who become his servants, when coming to the king, use the same with wedding ceremony.
VI. WAYS OF USING BATIK

1. The Preparation to Wear Batik
Before being worn, the cloth should be folded (wiru) first. The big or width of wiron are:
· · 3 fingers (for male)
· · 2 fingers (for female)
For Yogyakarta style, the cloth seret is still seen. In order that wiron doesn’t lose, it’s better to be given tweezers. This is also to make wiron tidy.
After that, cloth is worn. For male, the cloth wiron is on the right side, the opposite with female. Special for the cloth with parang motive, for Yogyakarta style, for male, parang direction is the opposite with keris (weapon) direction. If we pull line between keris and parang, so it will be crossing line. For the motives in which there is garuda bird motive, so the position of garuda must stand and try to place it in the middle of the user’s buttock.

VII. BATIK CLOTH MAINTENANCE

1. Washing
The washing of traditional batik cloth had better be with lerak liquid. Lerak liquid is usually available in bottle packaging or can be made ourselves. It’s better not to use washing soap.
The ways to wash the batik cloth can be done as follows:
 
a.
The washing of batik cloth by using lerak liquid (bottle packaging)
Take 5 liters of water ± 3 bottle lid of lerak liquid, steer. Soak the cloth in the solution, then wash till lerak liquid full of foam. Rinse with clean water.

  b. The washing of batik cloth by using lerak ore
Prepare 5 liters of water ± 3-5 lerak ore, soak the cloth into the solution Then wash it till lerak water full of foam. Rinse with clean water.

  Giving kanji can be done suitable with the need. If necessary, after the washing, in order that the batik cloth surface can be good, giving kanji can be done as follows:
  a. Prepare 5 liters of hot water.
  b. Solve 2 spoon full of kanji a glass of cool water.
  c. Enter kanji solution into 5 liters of hot water in a bucket, steer thoroughly
  d. Enter the cloth into the bucket, steer, and let it for a while.
  e. Lift, press and dry it.
  f. Expose to the air.
2. Drying
To dry the batik cloth it is better exposing it to the air in the cool place, and don’t dry under the sunlight directly. Don’t use an iron! to soften the batik cloth.
3. Storing
Vaporizing by using ratus can be done to make the cloth fragrance before being stored. It is better to enter the batik cloth into the closed wardrobe, not to get the direct lamp light or sunlight and not in a moist place. Giving kapur barus inside the wardrobe which is used to store the batik cloth can be done by putting kapur barus in a small pack or mashed and enter it to a small bowl. The function of kapur barus is to chase moths, so that they don’t eat the batik cloth.
.

DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Drs. Hamzuri, Batik Klasik , penerbit Djambatan, Jakarta 1981.
G.P. Rouffear En H.H. Juynboll, DE BATIKKUNST, Th.1914
J. E. Jasper en Mas Pirngadie, INLANDSCHE KUNSTNIJVERHEID
IN NEDERLANDSCH INDI, Gravenhage Door De Boek? & Kunstdrukkerij, Mouton & Co.? 1916.
Rijksblad van Djokjakarta No 19. th 1927
TJOKROSUHARTO. Koleksi Pola Motif Batik,
Tim Pengabdian pada Masyarakat Jurusan Sastra Daerah Fakultas Sastra Universitas Gadjah Mada, Pakaian Adat Jawa Gaya Yogyakarta, 1995

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